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 The Seven World Wonders

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Rovin Gordon
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PostSubject: The Seven World Wonders   Thu Apr 12, 2007 1:55 am

There are a lot of wonders in the world that are veiw as great acheivement of various civiliation. Heer we will discuss the main world wonders, I hope the topic intress you guys afro
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PostSubject: The first wonder is The Statue of Zeus at Olympia   Thu Apr 12, 2007 2:06 am

This is the statue of the god in whose honor the Ancient Olympic games were held. It was located on the land that gave its very name to the Olympics. At the time of the games, wars stopped, and athletes came from Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Sicily to celebrate the Olympics and to worship their king of gods: Zeus.

Location
At the ancient town of Olympia, on the west coast of modern Greece, about 150 km west of Athens.

History
The ancient Greek calendar starts in 776 BC, for the Olympic games are believed to have started that year. The magnificent temple of Zeus was designed by the architect Libon and was built around 450 BC. Under the growing power of ancient Greece, the simple Doric-style temple seemed too mundane, and modifications were needed. The solution: A majestic statue. The Athenian sculptor Pheidias was assigned for the "sacred" task, reminiscent of Michelangelo's paintings at the Sistine Chapel.

For the years that followed, the temple attracted visitors and worshippers from all over the world. In the second century BC repairs were skillfully made to the aging statue. In the first century AD, the Roman emperor Caligula attempted to transport the statue to Rome. However, his attempt failed when the scaffolding built by Caligula's workmen collapsed. After the Olympic games were banned in AD 391 by the emperor Theodosius I as Pagan practices, the temple of Zeus was ordered closed.

Olympia was further struck by earthquakes, landslides and floods, and the temple was damaged by fire in the fifth century AD. Earlier, the statue had been transported by wealthy Greeks to a palace in Constantinople. There, it survived until it was destroyed by a severe fire in AD 462. Today nothing remains at the site of the old temple except rocks and debris, the foundation of the buildings, and fallen columns.

Description
Pheidias began working on the statue around 440 BC. Years earlier, he had developed a technique to build enormous gold and ivory statues. This was done by erecting a wooden frame on which sheets of metal and ivory were placed to provide the outer covering. Pheidias' workshop in Olympia still exists, and is coincidentally -- or may be not -- identical in size and orientation to the temple of Zeus. There, he sculpted and carved the different pieces of the statue before they were assembled in the temple.

When the statue was completed, it barely fitted in the temple. Strabo wrote:

".. although the temple itself is very large, the sculptor is criticized for not having appreciated the correct proportions. He has shown Zeus seated, but with the head almost touching the ceiling, so that we have the impression that if Zeus moved to stand up he would unroof the temple."

Strabo was right, except that the sculptor is to be commended, not criticized. It is this size impression that made the statue so wonderful. It is the idea that the king of gods is capable of unroofing the temple if he stood up that fascinated poets and historians alike. The base of the statue was about 6.5 m (20 ft) wide and 1.0 meter (3 ft) high. The height of the statue itself was 13 m (40 ft), equivalent to a modern 4-story building.

The statue was so high that visitors described the throne more than Zeus body and features. The legs of the throne were decorated with sphinxes and winged figures of Victory. Greek gods and mythical figures also adorned the scene: Apollo, Artemis, and Niobe's children. The Greek Pausanias wrote:

On his head is a sculpted wreath of olive sprays. In his right hand he holds a figure of Victory made from ivory and gold... In his left hand, he holds a sceptre inlaid with every kind of metal, with an eagle perched on the sceptre. His sandals are made of gold, as is his robe. His garments are carved with animals and with lilies. The throne is decorated with gold, precious stones, ebony, and ivory.

The statue was occasionally decorated with gifts from kings and rulers. the most notable of these gifts was a woollen curtain "adorned with Assyrian woven patterns and Pheonician dye" which was dedicated by the Syrian king Antiochus IV.

Copies of the statue were made, including a large prototype at Cyrene (Libya). None of them, however, survived to the present day. Early reconstructions such as the one by von Erlach are now believed to be rather inaccurate. For us, we can only wonder about the true appearance of the statue -- the greatest work in Greek sculpture. afro

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PostSubject: kool   Thu Apr 12, 2007 2:22 am

u have sum gud info there dude!
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Beverly89
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Thu Apr 12, 2007 6:54 pm

Pretty interesting.
Well wow, as Alladin said u have some good info there.

May I ask, what do u study?

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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Mon Apr 23, 2007 9:21 am

I haver never seen so mush gold in one place, they could just give me he foot Very Happy afro
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Mon Apr 23, 2007 12:33 pm

I could take the chest!

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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Mon Apr 23, 2007 11:27 pm

me eyes big i gon tek wa remain lol!
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 3:23 pm

lol! Areefa. I know you want the man thing. (You know what thing I am talking about) lol!

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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:04 pm

Hunnie u know me so well Razz lol!
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:09 pm

I hope you guys reading and na just talking about the man thing Very Happy afro
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:13 pm

oh we're reading alright Wink
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:14 pm

The second world is the Pyramid.
afro

It is the one and only Wonder which does not require a description by early historians and poets. It is the one and only Wonder that does not need speculations concerning its appearance, size, and shape. It is the oldest, yet it is the only surviving of the Seven Ancient Wonders. It is the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Location:
At the city of Giza, a necropolis of ancient Memphis, and today part of Greater Cairo, Egypt.

History
Contrary to the common belief, only the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), not all three Great Pyramids, is on top of the list of Wonders. The monument was built by the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty around the year 2560 BC to serve as a tomb when he dies. The tradition of pyramid building started in Ancient Egypt as a sophistication of the idea of a mastaba or "platform" covering the royal tomb. Later, several stacked mastabas were used. Early pyramids, such as the Step Pyramid of King Zoser (Djoser) at Saqqara by the famous Egyptian architect, Imhotep, illustrate this connection.

The great pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20 year period. The site was first prepared, and blocks of stone were transported and placed. An outer casing (which disappeared over the years) was then used to smooth the surface. Although it is not known how the blocks were put in place, several theories have been proposed. One theory involves the construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. This ramp, coated with mud and water, eased the displacement of the blocks which were pushed (or pulled) into place. A second theory suggests that the blocks were placed using long levers with a short angled foot.

Throughout their history, the pyramids of Giza have stimulated human imagination. They were referred to as "The Granaries of Joseph" and "The Mountains of Pharaoh". When Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798, his pride was expressed through his famous quote: "Soldats! Du haute de ces Pyramides, 40 siècles nous contemplent". (Soldiers! From the top of these Pyramids, 40 centuries are looking at us)

Today, the Great Pyramid is enclosed, together with the other pyramids and the Sphinx, in the touristic region of the Giza Plateau. Also in the area is the museum housing the mysterious Sun Boat, only discovered in 1954 near the south side of the pyramid. The boat is believed to have been used to carry the body of Khufu in his last journey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid. It may also serve him as a means of transportation in his afterlife journey according to Ancient Egyptian beliefs.

Description
When it was built, the Great pyramid was 145.75 m (481 ft) high. Over the years, it lost 10 m (30 ft) off its top. It ranked as the tallest structure on Earth for more than 43 centuries, only to be surpassed in height in the nineteenth century AD. It was covered with a casing of stones to smooth its surface (some of the casing can still be seen near the top of Khefre's pyramid). The sloping angle of its sides is 54 degrees 54 minutes. Each side is carefully oriented with one of the cardinal points of the compass, that is, north, south, east, and west. The horizontal cross section of the pyramid is square at any level, with each side measuring 229 m (751 ft) in length. The maximum error between side lengths is astonishingly less than 0.1%.

The structure consists of approximately 2 million blocks of stone, each weighing more than two tons. It has been suggested that there are enough blocks in the three pyramids to build a 3 m (10 ft) high, 0.3 m (1 ft) thick wall around France. The area covered by the Great pyramid can accommodate St Peter's in Rome, the cathedrals of Florence and Milan, and Westminster and St Paul's in London combined.

On the north face, is the pyramid's entrance. A number of corridors, galleries, and escape shafts either lead to the King's burial chamber, or were intended to serve other functions. The King's chamber is located at the heart of the pyramid, only accessible through the Great Gallery and an ascending corridor. The King's sarcophagus is made of red granite, as are the interior walls of the King's Chamber. Most impressive is the sharp-edged stone over the doorway which is over 3 m (10 ft) long, 2.4 m (8 feet) high and 1.3 m (4 ft) thick. All of the interior stones fit so well, a card won't fit between them. The sarcophagus is oriented in accordance with the compass directions, and is only about 1 cm smaller in dimensions than the chamber entrance. It might have been introduced as the structure was progressing.

New theories concerning the origin and purpose of the Pyramids of Giza have been proposed... Astronomic observatories... Places of cult worship... Geometric structures constructed by a long-gone civilization... Even extraterrestrial-related theories have been proposed with little evidence in support... The overwhelming scientific and historic evidence still supports the conclusion that, like many smaller pyramids in the region, the Great Pyramids were built by the great Ancient Egyptian civilization off the West bank of the Nile as tombs for their magnificent Kings... Tombs where Khufu, Khefre, and Menkaure could start their mystic journey to the afterlife.




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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:17 pm

Areefa wrote:
oh we're reading alright Wink

I wonder what you guys will say about the pyramid Very Happy afro
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:17 pm

awesome Cool , Rovin u post a lot of interesting n educational stuff study
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:20 pm

no more comment Cool Razz
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:24 pm

Areefa wrote:
no more comment Cool Razz
Very Happy What can i say afro

I think this is one of the best world wonder. I don't think the modern world can even come close to building one like this, even with all the tech they have.
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:27 pm

yeh i was gonna say that but i figer u might so i jus typed no comment instead lol! hehe
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:31 pm

Areefa wrote:
yeh i was gonna say that but i figer u might so i jus typed no comment instead lol! hehe

lol


So what are your veiws on the pyramid afro
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:36 pm

when i was little they told me that all the ppl from those time were buried there, i was like oh i whole lot of dead ppl who ain't really important jus lying in there, but from readin this there's a different image in my head, tnx.
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:44 pm

Areefa wrote:
when i was little they told me that all the ppl from those time were buried there, i was like oh i whole lot of dead ppl who ain't really important jus lying in there, but from readin this there's a different image in my head, tnx.

Well i was told it was Pharoh tomb and it got alot of riches in side, also protected by black magic. afro Maybe it does have alot of dead people in side
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 10:49 pm

woo riches u say lol

but the dead ppl in there were once important ppl rite
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 11:08 pm

Areefa wrote:
woo riches u say lol

but the dead ppl in there were once important ppl rite

Yea the pharohs/kings of Egypt. I think their coffins made from gold afro
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 11:11 pm

Nice but i ent want none gold from no man coffin lol
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Tue Apr 24, 2007 11:18 pm

Areefa wrote:
Nice but i ent want none gold from no man coffin lol


I'm sure he wouldn't mine he is dead afro
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PostSubject: Re: The Seven World Wonders   Wed Apr 25, 2007 11:50 am

Rovin Gordon wrote:
Areefa wrote:
Nice but i ent want none gold from no man coffin lol


I'm sure he wouldn't mine he is dead afro

Nah da staying rite deh I fricken, only if u gon help me then Razz
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